April 2, 2004
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9285
AN ACT TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THE USE OF AN ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION SYSTEM IN THE PHILIPPINES AND TO ESTABLISH THE OFFICE FOR ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
SECTION 1. Title. — This Act shall be known as the "Alternative Dispute Resolution Act of 2004."
SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. — It is hereby declared the policy of the State to actively promote party autonomy in the resolution of disputes or the freedom of the parties to make their own arrangements to resolve their disputes. Towards this end, the State shall encourage and actively promote the use of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) as an important means to achieve speedy and impartial justice and declog court dockets. As such, the State shall provide means for the use of ADR as an efficient tool and an alternative procedure for the resolution of appropriate cases. Likewise, the State shall enlist active private sector participation in the settlement of disputes through ADR. This Act shall be without prejudice to the adoption by the Supreme Court of any ADR system, such as mediation, conciliation, arbitration, or any combination thereof as a means of achieving speedy and efficient means of resolving cases pending before all courts in the Philippines which shall be governed by such rules as the Supreme Court may approve from the time to time. STHAaD
SECTION 3. Definition of Terms. — For purposes of this Act, the term:
(a) "Alternative Dispute Resolution System" means any process or procedure used to resolve a dispute or controversy, other than by adjudication of a presiding judge of a court or an officer of a government agency, as defined in this Act, in which a neutral third party participates to assist in the resolution of issues, which includes arbitration, mediation, conciliation, early neutral evaluation, mini-trial, or any combination thereof;
(b) "ADR Provider" means institutions or persons accredited as mediator, conciliator, arbitrator, neutral evaluator, or any person exercising similar functions in any Alternative Dispute Resolution system. This is without prejudice to the rights of the parties to choose nonaccredited individuals to act as mediator, conciliator, arbitrator or neutral evaluator of their dispute. CDTAbench
Whenever referred to in this Act, the term "ADR practitioners" shall refer to individuals acting as mediator, conciliator, arbitrator or neutral evaluator;
(c) "Authenticate" means to sign, execute or adopt a symbol, or encrypt a record in whole or in part, intended to identify the authenticating party and to adopt, accept or establish the authenticity of a record or term;
(d) "Arbitration" means a voluntary dispute resolution process in which one or more arbitrators, appointed in accordance with the agreement of the parties, or rules promulgated pursuant to this Act, resolve a dispute by rendering an award;
(e) "Arbitrator" means the person appointed to render an award, alone or with others, in a dispute that is the subject of an arbitration agreement;
(f) "Award" means any partial or final decision by an arbitrator in resolving the issue in a controversy;
(g) "Commercial Arbitration" — An arbitration is "commercial" if it covers matter arising from all relationships of a commercial nature, whether contractual or not;
(h) "Confidential information" means any information, relative to the subject of mediation or arbitration, expressly intended by the source not to be disclosed, or obtained under circumstances that would create a reasonable expectation on behalf of the source that the information shall not be disclosed. It shall include (1) communication, oral or written, made in a dispute resolution proceedings, including any memoranda, notes or work product of the neutral party or non-party participant, as defined in this Act; (2) an oral or written statement made or which occurs during mediation or for purposes of considering, conducting, participating, initiating, continuing or reconvening mediation or retaining a mediator; and (3) pleadings, motions, manifestations, witness statements, reports filed or submitted in an arbitration or for expert evaluation;
(i) "Convention Award" means a foreign arbitral award made in a Convention State;
(j) "Convention State" means a State that is a member of the New York Convention;
(k) "Court" as referred to in Article 6 of the Model Law shall mean a Regional Trial Court;
(l) "Court-Annexed Mediation" means any mediation process conducted under the auspices of the court, after such court has acquired jurisdiction of the dispute;
(m) "Court-Referred Mediation" means mediation ordered by a court to be conducted in accordance with the Agreement of the Parties when an action is prematurely commenced in violation of such agreement;
(n) "Early Neutral Evaluation" means an ADR process wherein parties and their lawyers are brought together early in a pre-trial phase to present summaries of their cases and receive a non-binding assessment by an experienced, neutral person, with expertise in the subject in the substance of the dispute;
(o) "Government Agency" means any governmental entity, office or officer, other than a court, that is vested by law with quasi-judicial power or the power to resolve or adjudicate disputes involving the government, its agencies and instrumentalities, or private persons;
(p) "International Party" shall mean an entity whose place of business is outside the Philippines. It shall not include a domestic subsidiary of such international party or a co-venturer in a joint venture with a party which has its place of business in the Philippines. The term foreign arbitrator shall mean a person who is not a national of the Philippines;
(q) "Mediation" means a voluntary process in which a mediator, selected by the disputing parties, facilitates communication and negotiation, and assists the parties in reaching a voluntary agreement regarding a dispute;
(r) "Mediator" means a person who conducts mediation.
(s) "Mediation Party" means a person who participates in a mediation and whose consent is necessary to resolve the dispute;
(t) "Mediation-Arbitration" or Med-Arb is a two-step dispute resolution process involving both mediation and arbitration;
(u) "Mini-trial" means a structured dispute resolution method in which the merits of a case are argued before a panel comprising senior decision makers with or without the presence of a neutral third person after which the parties seek a negotiated settlement;
(v) "Model Law" means the Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law on 21 June 1985;
(w) "New York Convention" means the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards approved in 1958 and ratified by the Philippine Senate under Senate Resolution No. 71;
(x) "Non-Convention Award" means a foreign arbitral award made in a State which is not a Convention State;
(y) "Non-Convention State" means a State that is not a member of the New York Convention;
(z) "Non-Party Participant" means a person, other than a party or mediator, who participates in a mediation proceeding as a witness, resource person or expert;
(aa) "Proceeding" means a judicial, administrative, or other adjudicative process, including related pre-hearing or post-hearing motions, conferences and discovery;
(bb) "Record" means an information written on a tangible medium or stored in an electronic or other similar medium, retrievable in a perceivable form; and
(cc) "Roster" means a list of persons qualified to provide ADR services as neutrals or to serve as arbitrators.
SECTION 4. Electronic Signatures in Global and E-Commerce Act. — The provisions of the Electronic Signatures in Global and E-Commerce Act, and its Implementing Rules and Regulations shall apply to proceedings contemplated in this Act.
SECTION 5. Liability of ADR Providers/Practitioners. — The ADR providers and practitioners shall have the same civil liability for acts done in the performance of their duties as that of public officers as provided in Section 38(1), Chapter 9, Book I of the Administrative Code of 1987.
SECTION 6. Exception to the Application of this Act. — The provisions of this Act shall not apply to resolution or settlement of the following: (a) labor disputes covered by Presidential Decree No. 442, otherwise known as the Labor Code of the Philippines, as amended and its Implementing Rules and Regulations; (b) the civil status of persons; (c) the validity of a marriage; (d) any ground for legal separation; (e) the jurisdiction of courts; (f) future legitime; (g) criminal liability; and (h) those which by law cannot be compromised.
SECTION 7. Scope. — The provisions of this Chapter shall cover voluntary mediation, whether ad hoc or institutional, other than court-annexed. The term "mediation" shall include conciliation. CTHDcS
SECTION 8. Application and Interpretation. — In applying and construing the provisions of this Chapter, consideration must be given to the need to promote candor of parties and mediators through confidentiality of the mediation process, the policy of fostering prompt, economical, and amicable resolution of disputes in accordance with principles of integrity of determination by the parties, and the policy that the decision-making authority in the mediation process rests with the parties.
SECTION 9. Confidentiality of Information. — Information obtained through mediation proceedings shall be subject to the following principles and guidelines;
(a) Information obtained through mediation shall be privileged and confidential.
(b) A party, a mediator, or a nonparty participant may refuse to disclose and may prevent any other person from disclosing a mediation communication.
(c) Confidential Information shall not be subject to discovery and shall be inadmissible in any adversarial proceeding, whether judicial or quasi-judicial. However, evidence or information that is otherwise admissible or subject to discovery does not become inadmissible or protected from discovery solely by reason of its use in a mediation.
(d) In such an adversarial proceeding, the following persons involved or previously involved in a mediation may not be compelled to disclose confidential information obtained during the mediation: (1) the parties to the dispute; (2) the mediator or mediators; (3) the counsel for the parties; (4) the nonparty participants, (5) any persons hired or engaged in connection with the mediation as secretary, stenographer, clerk or assistant; and (6) any other person who obtains or possesses confidential information by reason of his/her profession.
(e) The protections of this Act shall continue to apply even if a mediator is found to have failed to act impartially.
(f) A mediator may not be called to testify to provide information gathered in mediation. A mediator who is wrongfully subpoenaed shall be reimbursed the full cost of his attorney's fees and related expenses.
SECTION 10. Waiver of Confidentiality. — A privilege arising from the confidentiality of information may be waived in a record, or orally during a proceeding by the mediator and the mediation parties.
A privilege arising from the confidentiality of information may likewise be waived by a nonparty participant if the information is provided by such nonparty participant.
A person who discloses confidential information shall be precluded from asserting the privilege under Section 9 of this Chapter to bar disclosure of the rest of the information necessary to a complete understanding of the previously disclosed information. If a person suffers loss or damage as a result of the disclosure of the confidential information, he shall be entitled to damages in a judicial proceeding against the person who made the disclosure.
A person who discloses or makes a representation about a mediation is precluded from asserting the privilege under Section 9, to the extent that the communication prejudices another person in the proceeding and it is necessary for the person prejudiced to respond to the representation of disclosure.
SECTION 11. Exceptions to Privilege. — (a) There is no privilege against disclosure under Section 9 if mediation communication is:
(1) in an agreement evidenced by a record authenticated by all parties to the agreement;
(2) available to the public or that is made during a session of a mediation which is open, or is required by law to be open, to the public;
(3) a threat or statement of a plan to inflict bodily injury or commit a crime of violence;
(4) Intentionally used to plan a crime, attempt to commit, or commit a crime, or conceal an ongoing crime or criminal activity;
(5) sought or offered to prove or disprove abuse, neglect, abandonment, or exploitation in a proceeding in which a public agency is protecting the interest of an individual protected by law; but this exception does not apply where a child protection matter is referred to mediation by a court or a public agency participates in the child protection mediation;
(6) sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim or complaint of professional misconduct or malpractice filed against mediator in a proceeding; or
(7) sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim or complaint of professional misconduct or malpractice filed against a party nonparty participant, or representative of a party based on conduct occurring during a mediation.
(b) There is no privilege under Section 9 if a court or administrative agency, finds, after a hearing in camera, that the party seeking discovery of the proponent of the evidence has shown that the evidence is not otherwise available, that there is a need for the evidence that substantially outweighs the interest in protecting confidentiality, and the mediation communication is sought or offered in:
(1) court proceeding involving a crime or felony; or
(2) a proceeding to prove a claim or defense that under the law is sufficient to reform or avoid a liability on a contract arising out of the mediation.
(c) A mediator may not be compelled to provide evidence of a mediation communication or testify in such proceeding.
(d) If a mediation communication is not privileged under an exception in subsection (a) or (b), only the portion of the communication necessary for the application of the exception for nondisclosure may be admitted. The admission of particular evidence for the limited purpose of an exception does not render that evidence, or any other mediation communication, admissible for any other purpose.
SECTION 12. Prohibited Mediator Reports. — A mediator may not make a report, assessment, evaluation, recommendation, finding, or other communication regarding a mediation to a court or agency or other authority that may make a ruling on a dispute that is the subject of a mediation, except:
(a) where the mediation occurred or has terminated, or where a settlement was reached.
(b) As permitted to be disclosed under Section 13 of this Chapter.
SECTION 13. Mediator's Disclosure and Conflict of Interest. — The mediation shall be guided by the following operative principles:
(a) Before accepting a mediation, an individual who is requested to serve as a mediator shall:
(1) make an inquiry that is reasonable under the circumstances to determine whether there are any known facts that a reasonable individual would consider likely to affect the impartiality of the mediator, including a financial or personal interest in the outcome of the mediation and any existing or past relationship with a party or foreseeable participant in the mediation; and
(2) disclose to the mediation parties any such fact known or learned as soon as is practical before accepting a mediation.
(b) If a mediator learns any fact described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section after accepting a mediation, the mediator shall disclose it as soon as practicable.
At the request of a mediation party, an individual who is requested to serve as mediator shall disclose his/her qualifications to mediate a dispute.
This Act does not require that a mediator shall have special qualifications by background or profession unless the special qualifications of a mediator are required in the mediation agreement or by the mediation parties.
SECTION 14. Participation in Mediation. — Except as otherwise provided in this Act, a party may designate a lawyer or any other person to provide assistance in the mediation. A waiver of this right shall be made in writing by the party waiving it. A waiver of participation or legal representation may be rescinded at any time.
SECTION 15. Place of Mediation. — The parties are free to agree on the place of mediation. Failing such agreement, the place of mediation shall be any place convenient and appropriate to all parties.
SECTION 16. Effect of Agreement to Submit Dispute to Mediation Under Institutional Rules. — An agreement to submit a dispute to mediation by an institution shall include an agreement to be bound by the internal mediation and administrative policies of such institution. Further, an agreement to submit a dispute to mediation under institutional mediation rules shall be deemed to include an agreement to have such rules govern the mediation of the dispute and for the mediator, the parties, their respective counsel, and nonparty participants to abide by such rules.
In case of conflict between the institutional mediation rules and the provisions of this Act, the latter shall prevail.
SECTION 17. Enforcement of Mediated Settlement Agreements. — The mediation shall be guided by the following operative principles:
(a) A settlement agreement following successful mediation shall be prepared by the parties with the assistance of their respective counsel, if any, and by the mediator.
The parties and their respective counsels shall endeavor to make the terms and condition thereof complete and make adequate provisions for the contingency of breach to avoid conflicting interpretations of the agreement.
(b) The parties and their respective counsels, if any, shall sign the settlement agreement. The mediator shall certify that he/she explained the contents of the settlement agreement to the parties in language known to them. TcDIEH
(c) If the parties so desire, they may deposit such settlement agreement with appropriate Clerk of a Regional Trial Court of the place where one of the parties resides. Where there is a need to enforce the settlement agreement, a petition may be filed by any of the parties with the same court, in which case, the court shall proceed summarily to hear the petition, in accordance with such rules of procedure as may be promulgated by the Supreme Court.
(d) The parties may agree in the settlement agreement that the mediator shall become a sole arbitrator for the dispute and shall treat the settlement agreement as an arbitral award which shall be subject to enforcement under Republic Act No. 876, otherwise known as the Arbitration Law, notwithstanding the provision of Executive Order No. 1008 for mediated disputes outside of the CIAC.
Other ADR Forms
SECTION 18. Referral of Dispute to Other ADR Forms. — The parties may agree to refer one or more or all issues arising in a dispute or during its pendency to other forms of ADR such as but not limited to (a) the evaluation of a third person or (b) a mini-trial, (c) mediation-arbitration, or a combination thereof.
For purposes of this Act, the use of other ADR forms shall be governed by Chapter 2 of this Act except where it is combined with arbitration in which case it shall likewise be governed by Chapter 5 of this Act.
International Commercial Arbitration
SECTION 19. Adoption of the Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration. — International commercial arbitration shall be governed by the Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (the "Model Law") adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law on 21 June 1985 (United Nations Document A/40/17) and recommended for enactment by the General Assembly in Resolution No. 40/72 approved on 11 December 1985, copy of which is hereto attached as Appendix "A".
SECTION 20. Interpretation of Model Law. — In interpreting the Model law, regard shall be had to its international origin and to the need for uniformity in its interpretation and resort may be made to the travaux preparatories and the report of the Secretary General of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law dated 25 March 1985 entitled, "International Commercial Arbitration: Analytical Commentary on Draft Text identified by reference number a/CN. 9/264."
SECTION 21. Commercial Arbitration. — An arbitration is "commercial" if it covers matters arising from all relationships of a commercial nature, whether contractual or not. Relationships of a commercial nature include, but are not limited to, the following transactions: any trade transaction for the supply or exchange of goods or services; distribution agreements; construction of works; commercial representation or agency; factoring; leasing; consulting; engineering; licensing; investment; financing; banking; insurance; joint venture and other forms of industrial or business cooperation; carriage of goods or passengers by air, sea, rail or road.
SECTION 22. Legal Representation in International Arbitration. — In international arbitration conducted in the Philippines, a party may be represented by any person of his choice: Provided, That such representative, unless admitted to the practice of law in the Philippines, shall not be authorized to appear as counsel in any Philippine court, or any other quasi-judicial body whether or not such appearance is in relation to the arbitration in which he appears.
SECTION 23. Confidentiality of Arbitration Proceedings. — The arbitration proceedings, including the records, evidence and the arbitral award, shall be considered confidential and shall not be published except (1) with the consent of the parties, or (2) for the limited purpose of disclosing to the court of relevant documents in cases where resort to the court is allowed herein: Provided, however, That the court in which the action or the appeal is pending may issue a protective order to prevent or prohibit disclosure of documents or information containing secret processes, developments, research and other information where it is shown that the applicant shall be materially prejudiced by an authorized disclosure thereof.
SECTION 24. Referral to Arbitration. — A court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject matter of an arbitration agreement shall, if at least one party so requests not later than the pre-trial conference, or upon the request of both parties thereafter, refer the parties to arbitration unless it finds that the arbitration agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed.
SECTION 25. Interpretation of the Act. — In interpreting the Act, the court shall have due regard to the policy of the law in favor of arbitration. Where action is commenced by or against multiple parties, one or more of whom are parties to an arbitration agreement, the court shall refer to arbitration those parties who are bound by the arbitration agreement although the civil action may continue as to those who are not bound by such arbitration agreement.
SECTION 26. Meaning of "Appointing Authority". — "Appointing Authority" as used in the Model Law shall mean the person or institution named in the arbitration agreement as the appointing authority; or the regular arbitration institution under whose rules the arbitration is agreed to be conducted. Where the parties have agreed to submit their dispute to institutional arbitration rules, and unless they have agreed to a different procedure, they shall be deemed to have agreed to the procedure under such arbitration rules for the selection and appointment of arbitrators. In ad hoc arbitration, the default appointment of an arbitrator shall be made by the National President of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) or his duly authorized representative.
SECTION 27. What Functions May be Performed by Appointing Authority. — The functions referred to in Articles 11(3), 11(4), 13(3) and 14(1) of the Model Law shall performed by the Appointing Authority, unless the latter shall fail or refuse to act within thirty (30) days from receipt of the request in which case the applicant may renew the application with the Court.
SECTION 28. Grant of Interim Measure of Protection. — (a) It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request, before constitution of the tribunal, from a Court an interim measure of protection and for the Court to grant such measure. After constitution of the arbitral tribunal and during arbitral proceedings, a request for an interim measure of protection, or modification thereof, may be made with the arbitral tribunal or to the extent that the arbitral tribunal has no power to act or is unable to act effectively, the request may be made with the Court. The arbitral tribunal is deemed constituted when the sole arbitrator or the third arbitrator, who has been nominated, has accepted the nomination and written communication of said nomination and acceptance has been received by the party making the request.
(b) The following rules on interim or provisional relief shall be observed:
(1) Any party may request that provisional relief be granted against the adverse party.
(2) Such relief may be granted:
(i) to prevent irreparable loss or injury;
(ii) to provide security for the performance of any obligation;
(iii) to produce or preserve any evidence; or
(iv) to compel any other appropriate act or omission.
(3) The order granting provisional relief may be conditioned upon the provision of security or any act or omission specified in the order.
(4) Interim or provisional relief is requested by written application transmitted by reasonable means to the Court or arbitral tribunal as the case may be and the party against whom the relief is sought, describing in appropriate detail the precise relief, the party against whom the relief is requested, the grounds for the relief, and the evidence supporting the request.
(5) The order shall be binding upon the parties.
(6) Either party may apply with the Court for assistance in implementing or enforcing an interim measure ordered by an arbitral tribunal.
(7) A party who does not comply with the order shall be liable for all damages resulting from noncompliance, including all expenses, and reasonable attorney's fees, paid in obtaining the order's judicial enforcement.
SECTION 29. Further Authority for Arbitrator to Grant Interim Measure of Protection. — Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, at the request of a party, order any party to take such interim measures of protection as the arbitral tribunal may consider necessary in respect of the subject-matter of the dispute following the rules in Section 28, paragraph 2. Such interim measures may include but shall not be limited to preliminary injunction directed against a party, appointment of receivers or detention, preservation, inspection of property that is the subject of the dispute in arbitration. Either party may apply with the Court for assistance in implementing or enforcing an interim measure ordered by an arbitral tribunal.
SECTION 30. Place of Arbitration. — The parties are free to agree on the place of arbitration. Failing such agreement, the place of arbitration shall be in Metro Manila, unless the arbitral tribunal, having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the convenience of the parties shall decide on a different place of arbitration. AEDcIH
The arbitral tribunal may, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, for hearing witnesses, experts or the parties, or for inspection of goods, other property or documents.
SECTION 31. Language of the Arbitration. — The parties are free to agree on the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings. Failing such agreement, the language to be used shall be English in international arbitration, and English or Filipino for domestic arbitration, unless the arbitral tribunal shall determine a different or another language or languages to be used in the proceedings. This agreement or determination, unless otherwise specified therein, shall apply to any written statement by a party, any hearing and any award, decision or other communication by the arbitral tribunal.
The arbitral tribunal may order that any documentary evidence shall be accompanied by a translation into the language or languages agreed upon the parties or determined in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Section.
SECTION 32. Law Governing Domestic Arbitration. — Domestic arbitration shall continue to be governed by Republic Act No. 876, otherwise known as "The Arbitration Law" as amended by this Chapter. The term "domestic arbitration" as used herein shall mean an arbitration that is not international as defined in Article 1(3) of the Model Law.
SECTION 33. Applicability to Domestic Arbitration. — Articles 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18 and 19 and 29 to 32 of the Model Law and Sections 22 to 31 of the preceding Chapter 4 shall apply to domestic arbitration.
Arbitration of Construction Disputes
SECTION 34. Arbitration of Construction Disputes: Governing Law. — The arbitration of construction disputes shall be governed by Executive Order No. 1008, otherwise known as the Construction Industry Arbitration Law.
SECTION 35. Coverage of the Law. — Construction disputes which fall within the original and exclusive jurisdiction of the Construction Industry Arbitration Commission (the "Commission") shall include those between or among parties to, or who are otherwise bound by, an arbitration agreement, directly or by reference whether such parties are project owner, contractor, subcontractor, fabricator, project manager, design professional, consultant, quantity surveyor, bondsman or issuer of an insurance policy in a construction project.
The Commission shall continue to exercise original and exclusive jurisdiction over construction disputes although the arbitration is "commercial" pursuant to Section 21 of this Act.
SECTION 36. Authority to Act as Mediator or Arbitrator. — By written agreement of the parties to a dispute, an arbitrator may act as mediator and a mediator may act as arbitrator. The parties may also agree in writing that, following a successful mediation, the mediator shall issue the settlement agreement in the form of an arbitral award.
SECTION 37. Appointment of Foreign Arbitrator. — The Construction Industry Arbitration Commission (CIAC) shall promulgate rules to allow for the appointment of a foreign arbitrator as co-arbitrator or chairman of a tribunal a person who has not been previously accredited by CIAC: Provided, That:
(a) the dispute is a construction dispute in which one party is an international party;
(b) the person to be appointed agreed to abide by the arbitration rules and policies of CIAC;
(c) he/she is either co-arbitrator upon the nomination of the international party; or he/she is the common choice of the two CIAC-accredited arbitrators first appointed, one of whom was nominated by the international party; and
(d) the foreign arbitrator shall be of different nationality from the international party.
SECTION 38. Applicability to Construction Arbitration. — The provisions of Section 17(d) of Chapter 2, and Sections 28 and 29 of this Act shall apply to arbitration of construction disputes covered by this Chapter.
SECTION 39. Court to Dismiss Case Involving a Construction Dispute. — A Regional Trial Court before which a construction dispute is filed shall, upon becoming aware, not later than the pre-trial conference, that the parties had entered into an arbitration agreement, dismiss the case and refer the parties to arbitration to be conducted by the CIAC, unless both parties, assisted by their respective counsel, shall submit to the Regional Trial Court a written agreement exclusively for the Court, rather than the CIAC, to resolve the dispute.
Judicial Review of Arbitral Awards
A. DOMESTIC AWARDS
SECTION 40. Confirmation of Award. — The confirmation of a domestic arbitral award shall be governed by Section 23 of R.A. No. 876.
A domestic arbitral award when confirmed shall be enforced in the same manner as final and executory decisions of the Regional Trial Court.
The recognition and enforcement of an award in an international commercial arbitration shall be governed by Article 35 of the Model Law.
The confirmation of a domestic award shall be made by the Regional Trial Court in accordance with the Rules of Procedure to be promulgated by the Supreme Court.
A CIAC arbitral award need not be confirmed by the Regional Trial Court to be executory as provided under E.O. No. 1008.
SECTION 41. Vacation Award. — A party to a domestic arbitration may question the arbitral award with the appropriate Regional Trial Court in accordance with rules of procedure to be promulgated by the Supreme Court only on those grounds enumerated in Section 25 of Republic Act No. 876. Any other ground raised against a domestic arbitral award shall be disregarded by the Regional Trial Court.
B. FOREIGN ARBITRAL AWARDS
SECTION 42. Application of the New York Convention. — The New York Convention shall govern the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards covered by said Convention.
The recognition and enforcement of such arbitral awards shall be filed with the Regional Trial Court in accordance with the rules of procedure to be promulgated by the Supreme Court. Said procedural rules shall provide that the party relying on the award or applying for its enforcement shall file with the court the original or authenticated copy of the award and the arbitration agreement. If the award or agreement is not made in any of the official languages, the party shall supply a duly certified translation thereof into any of such languages.
The applicant shall establish that the country in which foreign arbitration award was made is a party to the New York Convention.
If the application for rejection or suspension of enforcement of an award has been made, the Regional Trial Court may, if considers it proper, vacate its decision and may also, on the application of the party claiming recognition or enforcement of the award, order the party to provide appropriate security.
SECTION 43. Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards Not Covered by the New York Convention. — The recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards not covered by the New York Convention shall be done in accordance with procedural rules to be promulgated by the Supreme Court. The Court may, on grounds of comity and reciprocity, recognize and enforce a non-convention award as a convention award.
SECTION 44. Foreign Arbitral Award Not Foreign Judgment. — A foreign arbitral award when confirmed by a court of a foreign country, shall be recognized and enforced as a foreign arbitral award and not as a judgment of a foreign court.
A foreign arbitral award, when confirmed by the Regional Trial Court, shall be enforced in the same manner as final and executory decisions of courts of law of the Philippines.
SECTION 45. Rejection of a Foreign Arbitral Award. — A party to a foreign arbitration proceeding may oppose an application for recognition and enforcement of the arbitral award in accordance with the procedural rules to be promulgated by the Supreme Court only on those grounds enumerated under Article V of the New York Convention. Any other ground raised shall be disregarded by the Regional Trial Court.
SECTION 46. Appeal from Court Decisions on Arbitral Awards. — A decision of the Regional Trial Court confirming, vacating, setting aside, modifying or correcting an arbitral award may be appealed to the Court of Appeals in accordance with the rules of procedure to be promulgated by the Supreme Court. cSCTEH
The losing party who appeals from the judgment of the court confirming an arbitral award shall be required by the appellate court to post a counterbond executed in favor of the prevailing party equal to the amount of the award in accordance with the rules to be promulgated by the Supreme Court.
SECTION 47. Venue and Jurisdiction. — Proceedings for recognition and enforcement of an arbitration agreement or for vacation, setting aside, correction or modification of an arbitral award, and any application with a court for arbitration assistance and supervision shall be deemed as special proceedings and shall be filed with the Regional Trial Court (i) where arbitration proceedings are conducted; (ii) where the asset to be attached or levied upon, or the act to be enjoined is located; (iii) where any of the parties to the dispute resides or has his place of business; or (iv) in the National Judicial Capital Region, at the option of the applicant.
SECTION 48. Notice of Proceeding to Parties. — In a special proceeding for recognition and enforcement of an arbitral award, the Court shall send notice to the parties at their address of record in the arbitration, or if any party cannot be served notice at such address, at such party's last known address. The notice shall be sent at least fifteen (15) days before the date set for the initial hearing of the application.
SECTION 49. Office for Alternative Dispute Resolution. — There is hereby established the Office for Alternative Dispute Resolution as an attached agency to the Department of Justice (DOJ) which shall have a Secretariat to be headed by an Executive Director. The Executive Director shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines.
The objectives of the Office are:
(a) To promote, develop and expand the use of ADR in the private and public sectors; and
(b) To assist the government to monitor, study and evaluate the use by the public and the private sector of ADR, and recommend to Congress needful statutory changes to develop, strengthen and improve ADR practices in accordance with world standards.
SECTION 50. Powers and Functions of the Office for Alternative Dispute Resolution. — The Office for Alternative Dispute Resolution shall have the following powers and functions:
(a) To formulate standards for the training of the ADR practitioners and service providers;
(b) To certify that such ADR practitioners and ADR service providers have undergone the professional training provided by the Office;
(c) To coordinate the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of government ADR programs;
(d) To charge fees for their services; and
(e) To perform such acts as may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this Act.
SECTION 51. Appropriations. — The amount necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act shall be included in the General Appropriations Act of the year following its enactment into law and thereafter.
SECTION 52. Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR). — Within one (1) month after the approval of this Act, the Secretary of Justice shall convene a Committee that shall formulate the appropriate rules and regulations necessary for the implementation of this Act. The Committee, composed of representatives from:
(a) the Department of Justice;
(b) the Department of Trade and Industry;
(c) the Department of the Interior and Local Government;
(d) the President of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines;
(e) A representative from the arbitration profession;
(f) A representative from the mediation profession; and
(g) A representative from the ADR organizations
shall, within three (3) months after convening, submit the IRR to the Joint Congressional Oversight Committee for review and approval. The Oversight Committee shall be composed of the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Justice and Human Rights, Chairman of the House Committee on Justice, and one (1) member each from the Majority and Minority of both Houses.
The Joint Oversight Committee shall become functus officio upon approval of the IRR.
SECTION 53. Applicability of the Katarungang Pambarangay. — This Act shall not be interpreted to repeal, amend or modify the jurisdiction of the Katarungang Pambarangay under Republic Act No. 7160, otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991.
SECTION 54. Repealing Clause. — All laws, decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed, amended or modified accordingly.
SECTION 55. Separability Clause. — If for any reason or reasons, any portion or provision of this Act shall be held unconstitutional or invalid, all other parts or provisions not affected shall thereby continue to remain in full force and effect.
SECTION 56. Effectivity. — This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in at least two (2) national newspapers of general circulation.
Approved: April 2, 2004
Published in The Manila Times on April 13, 2004.
THE UNCITRAL MODEL LAW
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 1. Scope of Application
(1) This Law applies to international commercial arbitration, subject to any agreement in force between this State and any other State or States. TcHCDI
(2) The provisions of this Law, except articles 8, 9, 35 and 36, apply only if the place of arbitration is in the territory of this State.
(3) An arbitration is international if:
a) the parties to an arbitration agreement have, at the time of the conclusion of that agreement, their places of business in different States; or
(b) one of the following places is situated outside the State in which the parties have their places of business:
(i) the place of arbitration if determined in, or pursuant to, the arbitration agreement;
(ii) any place where a substantial part of the obligations of the commercial relationship is to be performed or the place with which the subject-matter of the dispute is most closely connected; or
(c) the parties have expressly agreed that the subject-matter of the arbitration agreement relates to more than one country.
(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3) of this article:
(a) if a party has more than one place of business, the place of business is that which has the closest relationship to the arbitration agreement;
(b) if a party does not have a place of business, reference is to be made to his habitual residence.
(5) This Law shall not affect any other law of this State by virtue of which certain disputes may not be submitted to arbitration or may be submitted to arbitration only according to provisions other than those of this Law.
ARTICLE 2. Definitions and rules of interpretation
For the purposes of this Law:
(a) "arbitration" means any arbitration whether or not administered by a permanent arbitral institution;
(b) "arbitral tribunal" means a sole arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators;
(c) "court" means a body or organ of the judicial system of a State;
(d) where a provision of this Law, except article 28, leaves the parties free to determine a certain issue, such freedom includes the right of the parties to authorize a third party, including an institution, to make that determination;
(e) where a provision of this Law refers to the fact that the parties have agreed or that they may agree or in any other way refers to an agreement of the parties, such agreement includes any arbitration rules referred to in that agreement;
(f) where a provision of this Law, other than in articles 25(a) and 32(2)(a), refers to a claim, it also applies to a counter-claim, and where it refers to a defence, it also applies to a defence to such counter-claim.
ARTICLE 3. Receipt of written communications
(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties:
(a) any written communication is deemed to have been received if it is delivered to the addressee personally or if it is delivered at his place of business, habitual residence or mailing address; if none of these can be found after making a reasonable inquiry, a written communication is deemed to have been received if it is sent to the addressee's last-known place of business, habitual residence or mailing address by registered letter or any other means which provides a record of the attempt to deliver it;
(b) the communication is deemed to have been received on the day it is so delivered.
(2) The provisions of this article do not apply to communications in court proceedings.
ARTICLE 4. Waiver of right to object
A party who knows that any provision of this Law from which the parties may derogate or any requirement under the arbitration agreement has not been complied with and yet proceeds with the arbitration without stating his objection to such non-compliance without undue delay or, if a time-limit is provided therefor, within such period of time, shall be deemed to have waived his right to object.
ARTICLE 5. Extent of court intervention
In matters governed by this Law, no court shall intervene except where so provided in this Law.
ARTICLE 6. Court or other authority for certain functions of arbitration assistance and supervision
The functions referred to in articles 11(3), 11(4), 13(3), 14, 16(3) and 34(2) shall be performed by . . . [Each State enacting this model law specifies the court, courts or, where referred to therein, other authority competent to perform these functions.]
CHAPTER II. ARBITRATION AGREEMENT
ARTICLE 7. Definition and form of arbitration agreement
(1) "Arbitration agreement" is an agreement by the parties to submit to arbitration all or certain disputes which have arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or not. An arbitration agreement may be in the form of an arbitration clause in a contract or in the form of a separate agreement.
(2) The arbitration agreement shall be in writing. An agreement is in writing if it is contained in a document signed by the parties or in an exchange of letters, telex, telegrams or other means of telecommunication which provide a record of the agreement, or in an exchange of statements of claim and defence in which the existence of an agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by another. The reference in a contract to a document containing an arbitration clause constitutes an arbitration agreement provided that the contract is in writing and the reference is such as to make that clause part of the contract.
ARTICLE 8. Arbitration agreement and substantive claim before court
(1) A court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement shall, if a party so requests not later than when submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute, refer the parties to arbitration unless it finds that the agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed. TaDSCA
(2) Where an action referred to in paragraph (1) of this article has been brought, arbitral proceedings may nevertheless be commenced or continued, and an award may be made, while the issue is pending before the court.
ARTICLE 9. Arbitration agreement and interim measures by court
It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request, before or during arbitral proceedings, from a court an interim measure of protection and for a court to grant such measure.
CHAPTER III. COMPOSITION OF ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL
ARTICLE 10. Number of arbitrators
(1) The parties are free to determine the number of arbitrators.
(2) Failing such determination, the number of arbitrators shall be three.
ARTICLE 11. Appointment of arbitrators
(1) No person shall be precluded by reason of his nationality from acting as an arbitrator, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.
(2) The parties are free to agree on a procedure of appointing the arbitrator or arbitrators, subject to the provisions of paragraphs (4) and (5) of this article.
(3) Failing such agreement,
(a) in an arbitration with three arbitrators, each party shall appoint one arbitrator, and the two arbitrators thus appointed shall appoint the third arbitrator; if a party fails to appoint the arbitrator within thirty days of receipt of a request to do so from the other party, or if the two arbitrators fail to agree on the third arbitrator within thirty days of their appointment, the appointment shall be made, upon request of a party, by the court or other authority specified in article 6;
(b) in an arbitration with a sole arbitrator, if the parties are unable to agree on the arbitrator, he shall be appointed, upon request of a party, by the court or other authority specified in article 6.
(4) Where, under an appointment procedure agreed upon by the parties,
(a) a party fails to act as required under such procedure, or
(b) the parties, or two arbitrators, are unable to reach an agreement expected of them under such procedure, or
(c) a third party, including an institution, fails to perform any function entrusted to it under such procedure, any party may request the court or other authority specified in article 6 to take the necessary measure, unless the agreement on the appointment procedure provides other means for securing the appointment.
(5) A decision on a matter entrusted by paragraph (3) or (4) of this article to the court or other authority specified in article 6 shall be subject to no appeal. The court or other authority, in appointing an arbitrator, shall have due regard to any qualifications required of the arbitrator by the agreement of the parties and to such considerations as are likely to secure the appointment of an independent and impartial arbitrator and, in the case of a sole or third arbitrator, shall take into account as well the advisability of appointing an arbitrator of a nationality other than those of the parties.
ARTICLE 12. Grounds for challenge
(1) When a person is approached in connection with his possible appointment as an arbitrator, he shall disclose any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his impartiality or independence. An arbitrator, from the time of his appointment and throughout the arbitral proceedings, shall without delay disclose any such circumstances to the parties unless they have already been informed of them by him.
(2) An arbitrator may be challenged only if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to his impartiality or independence, or if he does not possess qualifications agreed to by the parties. A party may challenge an arbitrator appointed by him, or in whose appointment he has participated, only for reasons of which he becomes aware after the appointment has been made.
ARTICLE 13. Challenge procedure
(1) The parties are free to agree on a procedure for challenging an arbitrator, subject to the provisions of paragraph (3) of this article.
(2) Failing such agreement, a party who intends to challenge an arbitrator shall, within fifteen days after becoming aware of the constitution of the arbitral tribunal or after becoming aware of any circumstance referred to in article 12(2), send a written statement of the reasons for the challenge to the arbitral tribunal. Unless the challenged arbitrator withdraws from his office or the other party agrees to the challenge, the arbitral tribunal shall decide on the challenge.
(3) If a challenge under any procedure agreed upon by the parties or under the procedure of paragraph (2) of this article is not successful, the challenging party may request, within thirty days after having received notice of the decision rejecting the challenge, the court or other authority specified in article 6 to decide on the challenge, which decision shall be subject to no appeal; while such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal, including the challenged arbitrator, may continue the arbitral proceedings and make an award.
ARTICLE 14. Failure or impossibility to act
(1) If an arbitrator becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his functions or for other reasons fails to act without undue delay, his mandate terminates if he withdraws from his office or if the parties agree on the termination. Otherwise, if a controversy remains concerning any of these grounds, any party may request the court or other authority specified in article 6 to decide on the termination of the mandate, which decision shall be subject to no appeal.
(2) If, under this article or article 13(2), an arbitrator withdraws from his office or a party agrees to the termination of the mandate of an arbitrator, this does not imply acceptance of the validity of any ground referred to in this article or article 12(2).
ARTICLE 15. Appointment of substitute arbitrator
Where the mandate of an arbitrator terminates under article 13 or 14 or because of his withdrawal from office for any other reason or because of the revocation of his mandate by agreement of the parties or in any other case of termination of his mandate, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed according to the rules that were applicable to the appointment of the arbitrator being replaced.
CHAPTER IV. JURISDICTION OF ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL
ARTICLE 16. Competence of arbitral tribunal to rule on its jurisdiction
(1) The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction, including any objections with respect to the existence or validity of the arbitration agreement. For that purpose, an arbitration clause which forms part of a contract shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract. A decision by the arbitral tribunal that the contract is null and void shall not entail ipso jure the invalidity of the arbitration clause. cTCADI
(2) A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction shall be raised not later than the submission of the statement of defence. A party is not precluded from raising such a plea by the fact that he has appointed, or participated in the appointment of, an arbitrator. A plea that the arbitral tribunal is exceeding the scope of its authority shall be raised as soon as the matter alleged to be beyond the scope of its authority is raised during the arbitral proceedings. The arbitral tribunal may, in either case, admit a later plea if it considers the delay justified.
(3) The arbitral tribunal may rule on a plea referred to in paragraph (2) of this article either as a preliminary question or in an award on the merits. If the arbitral tribunal rules as a preliminary question that it has jurisdiction, any party may request, within thirty days after having received notice of that ruling, the court specified in article 6 to decide the matter, which decision shall be subject to no appeal; while such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal may continue the arbitral proceedings and make an award.
ARTICLE 17. Power of arbitral tribunal to order interim measures
Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, at the request of a party, order any party to take such interim measure of protection as the arbitral tribunal may consider necessary in respect of the subject-matter of the dispute. The arbitral tribunal may require any party to provide appropriate security in connection with such measure.
CHAPTER V. CONDUCT OF ARBITRAL PROCEEDINGS
ARTICLE 18. Equal treatment of parties
The parties shall be treated with equality and each party shall be given a full opportunity of presenting his case.
ARTICLE 19. Determination of rules of procedure
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Law, the parties are free to agree on the procedure to be followed by the arbitral tribunal in conducting the proceedings.
(2) Failing such agreement, the arbitral tribunal may, subject to the provisions of this Law, conduct the arbitration in such manner as it considers appropriate. The power conferred upon the arbitral tribunal includes the power to determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of any evidence.
ARTICLE 20. Place of arbitration
(1) The parties are free to agree on the place of arbitration. Failing such agreement, the place of arbitration shall be determined by the arbitral tribunal having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the convenience of the parties.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this article, the arbitral tribunal may, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, for hearing witnesses, experts or the parties, or for inspection of goods, other property or documents.
ARTICLE 21. Commencement of arbitral proceedings
Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral proceedings in respect of a particular dispute commence on the date on which a request for that dispute to be referred to arbitration is received by the respondent.
ARTICLE 22. Language
(1) The parties are free to agree on the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings. Failing such agreement, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the language or languages to be used in the proceedings. This agreement or determination, unless otherwise specified therein, shall apply to any written statement by a party, any hearing and any award, decision or other communication by the arbitral tribunal.
(2) The arbitral tribunal may order that any documentary evidence shall be accompanied by a translation into the language or languages agreed upon by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal.
ARTICLE 23. Statements of claim and defence
(1) Within the period of time agreed by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal, the claimant shall state the facts supporting his claim, the points at issue and the relief or remedy sought, and the respondent shall state his defence in respect of these particulars, unless the parties have otherwise agreed as to the required elements of such statements. The parties may submit with their statements all documents they consider to be relevant or may add a reference to the documents or other evidence they will submit.
(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, either party may amend or supplement his claim or defence during the course of the arbitral proceedings, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate to allow such amendment having regard to the delay in making it.
ARTICLE 24. Hearings and written proceedings
(1) Subject to any contrary agreement by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall decide whether to hold oral hearings for the presentation of evidence or for oral argument, or whether the proceedings shall be conducted on the basis of documents and other materials. However, unless the parties have agreed that no hearings shall be held, the arbitral tribunal shall hold such hearings at an appropriate stage of the proceedings, if so requested by a party.
(2) The parties shall be given sufficient advance notice of any hearing and of any meeting of the arbitral tribunal for the purposes of inspection of goods, other property or documents.
(3) All statements, documents or other information supplied to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall be communicated to the other party. Also any expert report or evidentiary document on which the arbitral tribunal may rely in making its decision shall be communicated to the parties.
ARTICLE 25. Default of a party
Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if, without showing sufficient cause,
(a) the claimant fails to communicate his statement of claim in accordance with article 23(1), the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings;
(b) the respondent fails to communicate his statement of defence in accordance with article 23(1), the arbitral tribunal shall continue the proceedings without treating such failure in itself as an admission of the claimant's allegations;
(c) any party fails to appear at a hearing or to produce documentary evidence, the arbitral tribunal may continue the proceedings and make the award on the evidence before it.
ARTICLE 26. Expert appointed by arbitral tribunal
(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal
(a) may appoint one or more experts to report to it on specific issues to be determined by the arbitral tribunal; AaITCS
(b) may require a party to give the expert any relevant information or to produce, or to provide access to, any relevant documents, goods or other property for his inspection.
(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if a party so requests or if the arbitral tribunal considers it necessary, the expert shall, after delivery of his written or oral report, participate in a hearing where the parties have the opportunity to put questions to him and to present expert witnesses in order to testify on the points at issue.
ARTICLE 27. Court assistance in taking evidence
The arbitral tribunal or a party with the approval of the arbitral tribunal may request from a competent court of this State assistance in taking evidence. The court may execute the request within its competence and according to its rules on taking evidence.
CHAPTER VI. MAKING OF AWARD AND
TERMINATION OF PROCEEDINGS
ARTICLE 28. Rules applicable to substance of dispute
(1) The arbitral tribunal shall decide the dispute in accordance with such rules of law as are chosen by the parties as applicable to the substance of the dispute. Any designation of the law or legal system of a given State shall be construed, unless otherwise expressed, as directly referring to the substantive law of that State and not to its conflict of laws rules.
(2) Failing any designation by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall apply the law determined by the conflict of laws rules which it considers applicable.
(3) The arbitral tribunal shall decide ex aequo et bono or as amiable compositeur only if the parties have expressly authorized it to do so.
(4) In all cases, the arbitral tribunal shall decide in accordance with the terms of the contract and shall take into account the usages of the trade applicable to the transaction.
ARTICLE 29. Decision making by panel of arbitrators
In arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, any decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be made, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, by a majority of all its members. However, questions of procedure may be decided by a presiding arbitrator, if so authorized by the parties or all members of the arbitral tribunal.
ARTICLE 30. Settlement
(1) If, during arbitral proceedings, the parties settle the dispute, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings and, if requested by the parties and not objected to by the arbitral tribunal, record the settlement in the form of an arbitral award on agreed terms.
(2) An award on agreed terms shall be made in accordance with the provisions of article 31 and shall state that it is an award. Such an award has the same status and effect as any other award on the merits of the case.
ARTICLE 31. Form and contents of award
(1) The award shall be made in writing and shall be signed by the arbitrator or arbitrators. In arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, the signatures of the majority of all members of the arbitral tribunal shall suffice, provided that the reason for any omitted signature is stated.
(2) The award shall state the reasons upon which it is based, unless the parties have agreed that no reasons are to be given or the award is an award on agreed terms under article 30.
(3) The award shall state its date and the place of arbitration as determined in accordance with article 20(1). The award shall be deemed to have been made at that place.
(4) After the award is made, a copy signed by the arbitrators in accordance with paragraph (1) of this article shall be delivered to each party.
ARTICLE 32. Termination of proceedings
(1) The arbitral proceedings are terminated by the final award or by an order of the arbitral tribunal in accordance with paragraph (2) of this article.
(2) The arbitral tribunal shall issue an order for the termination of the arbitral proceedings when:
(a) the claimant withdraws his claim, unless the respondent objects thereto and the arbitral tribunal recognizes a legitimate interest on his part in obtaining a final settlement of the dispute;
(b) the parties agree on the termination of the proceedings;
(c) the arbitral tribunal finds that the continuation of the proceedings has for any other reason become unnecessary or impossible.
(3) The mandate of the arbitral tribunal terminates with the termination of the arbitral proceedings, subject to the provisions of articles 33 and 34(4).
ARTICLE 33. Correction and interpretation of award; additional award
(1) Within thirty days of receipt of the award, unless another period of time has been agreed upon by the parties:
(a) a party, with notice to the other party, may request the arbitral tribunal to correct in the award any errors in computation, any clerical or typographical errors or any errors of similar nature;
(b) if so agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request the arbitral tribunal to give an interpretation of a specific point or part of the award.
If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the correction or give the interpretation within thirty days of receipt of the request. The interpretation shall form part of the award.
(2) The arbitral tribunal may correct any error of the type referred to in paragraph (1)(a) of this article on its own initiative within thirty days of the date of the award.
(3) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request, within thirty days of receipt of the award, the arbitral tribunal to make an additional award as to claims presented in the arbitral proceedings but omitted from the award. If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the additional award within sixty days.
(4) The arbitral tribunal may extend, if necessary, the period of time within which it shall make a correction, interpretation or an additional award under paragraph (1) or (3) of this article. CTDHSE
(5) The provisions of article 31 shall apply to a correction or interpretation of the award or to an additional award.
CHAPTER VII. RECOURSE AGAINST AWARD
ARTICLE 34. Application for setting aside as exclusive recourse against arbitral award
(1) Recourse to a court against an arbitral award may be made only by an application for setting aside in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3) of this article.
(2) An arbitral award may be set aside by the court specified in article 6 only if:
(a) the party making the application furnishes proof that:
(i) a party to the arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under the law of this State; or
(ii) the party making the application was not given proper notice of the appointment of an arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or
(iii) the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to arbitration, or contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration, provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, only that part of the award which contains decisions on matters not submitted to arbitration may be set aside; or
(iv) the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties, unless such agreement was in conflict with a provision of this Law from which the parties cannot derogate, or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with this Law; or
(b) the court finds that:
(i) the subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of this State; or
(ii) the award is in conflict with the public policy of this State.
(3) An application for setting aside may not be made after three months have elapsed from the date on which the party making that application had received the award or, if a request had been made under article 33, from the date on which that request had been disposed of by the arbitral tribunal.
(4) The court, when asked to set aside an award, may where appropriate and so requested by a party, suspend the setting aside proceedings for a period of time determined by it in order to give the arbitral tribunal an opportunity to resume the arbitral proceedings or to take such other action as in the arbitral tribunal's opinion will eliminate the grounds for setting aside.
CHAPTER VIII. RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT OF AWARDS
ARTICLE 35. Recognition and enforcement
(1) An arbitral award, irrespective of the country in which it was made, shall be recognized as binding and, upon application in writing to the competent court, shall be enforced subject to the provisions of this article and of article 36.
(2) The party relying on an award or applying for its enforcement shall supply the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy thereof, and the original arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 or a duly certified copy thereof. If the award or agreement is not made in an official language of this State, the party shall supply a duly certified translation thereof into such language. . . .
ARTICLE 36. Grounds for refusing recognition or enforcement
(1) Recognition or enforcement of an arbitral award, irrespective of the country in which it was made, may be refused only:
(a) at the request of the party against whom it is invoked, if that party furnishes to the competent court where recognition or enforcement is sought proof that:
(i) a party to the arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under the law of the country where the award was made; or
(ii) the party against whom the award is invoked was not given proper notice of the appointment of an arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or
(iii) the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to arbitration, or it contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration, provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, that part of the award which contains decisions on matters submitted to arbitration may be recognized and enforced; or
(iv) the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with the law of the country where the arbitration took place; or
(v) the award has not yet become binding on the parties or has been set aside or suspended by a court of the country in which, or under the law of which, that award was made; or
(b) if the court finds that:
(i) the subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of this State; or
(ii) the recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to the public policy of this State.\
(2) If an application for setting aside or suspension of an award has been made to a court referred to in paragraph (1)(a)(v) of this article, the court where recognition or inforcement is sought may, if it considers it proper, adjourn its decision and may also, on the application of the party claiming recognition or enforecement of the award, order the other party to provide appropriate security.